Temple Update Article
Expanded Internet Edition - December 1, 2000 

The Temple Was a Tower

By Ernest L. Martin, PH. D., December 2000

Excerpts from early historical sources that the Temple was shaped like a TOWER. See the references below. The word TOWER has been highlighted for easy reference. Notice 1) The Epistle of Barnabas, 2) The Book of Enoch; and 3) The Shepherd of Hermas. I give an introduction to all three sources. To see the TEMPLE/TOWER connection, simply scroll (or look) through the texts of the three literary works translated below. There is no specific teaching that I am intending from the texts of the three sources. The display is simply to show that it was common knowledge among Jews and Gentiles (both before and after the time of Christ Jesus) that the Temples were like TOWERS – like the "Tower of Babel" mentioned in the Book of Genesis. This article is simply to show this.

THE EPISTLE OF BARNABAS (written about 85 A.D. – it is the first eyewitness account of the Temple in ruins). Note that this author (who was probably NOT the Barnabas of the New Testament) stated that the Temple looked like a TOWER (or, as we would say today, like a SKYSCRAPER). Josephus described it as a square building (600 feet by 600 feet) and about 450 feet high from the bottom of the Kidron Valley. It thus resembled a modern building in downtown Los Angeles, Chicago or New York that occupied a square block of territory and was as high as a 40 to 45 story building. The Temple platform itself was like a Penthouse on top of the TOWER. It was connected to Fort Antonia in the north by two colonnade roadways that were each 600 feet long. Fort Antonia is now the fourwalled structure known as the Haram esh-Sharif. Let us now notice how Professor Lightfoot translated Barnabas. I have highlighted the word TEMPLE and in the midst we see the word TOWER (also highlighted).

J.B. Lightfoot has translated the text of The Epistle of Barnabas. Adapted and modernized (c) 1990.

"Moreover I will tell you likewise concerning the TEMPLE, how these wretched men being led astray set their hope on the building, and not on their God that made them, as being a house of God. For like the Gentiles almost they consecrated Him in the TEMPLE. But what saith the Lord abolishing the TEMPLE? Learn ye. Who hath measured the heaven with a span, or hath measured the earth with his hand? Have not I, saith the Lord? The heaven is My throne and the earth the footstool of My feet. What manner of house will ye build for Me? Or what shall be my resting place? Ye perceive that their hope is vain. Furthermore He saith again; Behold they that pulled down this TEMPLE themselves shall build it. So it cometh to pass; for because they went to war it was pulled down by their enemies. Now also the very servants of their enemies shall build it up. Again, it was revealed how the city and the TEMPLE and the people of Israel should be betrayed. For the scripture saith; And it shall be in the last days, that the Lord shall deliver up the sheep of the pasture and the fold and the TOWER thereof to destruction. And it came to pass as the Lord spake. But let us enquire whether there be any TEMPLE of God. There is; in the place where he himself undertakes to make and finish it. For it is written And it shall come to pass, when the week [of Daniel’s Seventy Weeks’ Prophecy] is being accomplished, the TEMPLE of God shall be built gloriously in the name of the Lord. I find then that there is a TEMPLE, How then shall it be built in the name of the Lord? Understand ye. Before we believed on God, the abode of our heart was corrupt and weak, a TEMPLE truly built by hands; for it was full of idolatry and was a house of demons, because we did whatsoever was contrary to God. But it [the true Temple, or the Ekklesia of God] shall be built in the name of the Lord. Give heed then that the TEMPLE of the Lord may be built."

The next reference I will give that the Temple was a TOWER is the Book of Enoch written about 100 years before the birth of Jesus. The author knew the Temple even then (though it was half the size of Herod’s Temple that Jesus knew) as being fashioned as a TOWER (a skyscraper type of building with a platform on top that housed the Temple which was like a Penthouse on top of the TOWER). Simply scroll (or read) through the text of Enoch to see the TEMPLE/TOWER identification. All early people knew the Temple in Jerusalem was shaped like a square TOWER. Note the text that follows. The symbolic animals represent men in history who lived in the third and second centuries before Christ.

[Chapter 87] 1 And again I saw how they began to gore each other and to devour each other, and the earth 2 began to cry aloud. And I raised mine eyes again to heaven, and I saw in the vision, and behold there came forth from heaven beings who were like white men: and four went forth from that place 3 and three with them. And those three that had last come forth grasped me by my hand and took me up, away from the generations of the earth, and raised me up to a lofty place, and showed me 4 a TOWER raised high above the earth, and all the hills were lower. And one said unto me: ' Remain here till thou seest everything that befalls those elephants, camels, and asses, and the stars and the oxen, and all of them.' [Haitus] 50 And that house became great and broad, and it was built for those sheep: (and) a TOWER lofty and great was built on the house for the Lord of the sheep, and that house was low, but the TOWER was elevated and lofty, and the Lord of the sheep stood on that TOWER and they offered a full table before Him. 51 And again I saw those sheep that they again erred and went many ways, and forsook that their house, and the Lord of the sheep called some from amongst the sheep and sent them to the sheep, 52 but the sheep began to slay them. And one of them was saved and was not slain, and it sped away and cried aloud over the sheep; and they sought to slay it, but the Lord of the sheep saved it from 53 the sheep, and brought it up to me, and caused it to dwell there. And many other sheep He sent to those sheep to testify unto them and lament over them. And after that I saw that when they forsook the house of the Lord and His TOWER they fell away entirely, and their eyes were blinded; and I saw the Lord of the sheep how He wrought much slaughter amongst them in their herds until 55 those sheep invited that slaughter and betrayed His place. And He gave them over into the hands of the lions and tigers, and wolves and hyenas, and into the hand of the foxes, and to all the wild 56 beasts, and those wild beasts began to tear in pieces those sheep. And I saw that He forsook that their house and their TOWER and gave them all into the hand of the lions, to tear and devour them, 57 into the hand of all the wild beasts. [Hiatus] And I saw till those shepherds pastured in their season, and they began to slay and to destroy more than they were bidden, and they delivered 66 those sheep into the hand of the lions. And the lions and tigers eat and devoured the greater part of those sheep, and the wild boars eat along with them; and they burnt that TOWER and demolished 67 that house. And I became exceedingly sorrowful over that TOWER because that house of the sheep was demolished, and afterwards I was unable to see if those sheep entered that house. [Hiatus] 72 And forthwith I saw how the shepherds pastured for twelve hours, and behold three of those sheep turned back and came and entered and began to build up all that had fallen down of that 73 house; but the wild boars tried to hinder them, but they were not able. And they began again to build as before, and they reared up that TOWER, and it was named the high TOWER; and they began again to place a table before the TOWER, but all the bread on it was polluted and not pure.

The next reference to the Temple being a TOWER is The Shepherd of Hermas (a Christian composition written in the latter part of the Second Century A.D). This source identifies the Christian Church (ekklesia) as being a type of Temple (like the apostle Paul stated in Ephesians 2). But since the New Jerusalem in Revelation 21 is shown to be a HIGH TOWER (really, a cube shaped structure symbolically shown to be about 1300 miles high), it would resemble a TOWER (that is, like a skyscraper). The Shepherd of Hermas always calls the Temple of God at Jerusalem as being like a TOWER which the author (as stated above) symbolically represents the Christian Community of believers (the ekklesia). You will notice the abundance of prime references to the TOWER/TEMPLE and the TOWER/CHURCH identification. Simply scroll through the text to see the many references to this identification. Thus, to the Shepherd of Hermas, the Temple in Jerusalem was indeed shaped like a TOWER. Let us see the text.

APOSTOLIC FATHERS, THE SHEPHERD OF HERMAS (translated and edited by J. B. Lightfoot). I have abridged it with hiatuses in some places.

VISION ONE. 1:2 The master, who reared me, had sold me to one Rhoda in Rome. 1:3 After many years, I met her again, and began to love her as a sister. 1:4 After a certain time I saw her bathing in the river Tiber; 1:5 and I gave her my hand, and led her out of the river. 1:6 So, seeing her beauty, I reasoned in my heart, saying, ` Happy were I, if I had such an one to wife both in beauty and in character'. 1:7 I merely reflected on this and nothing more. 1:8 After a certain time, as I was journeying to Cumae, and glorifying God's creatures for their greatness and splendour and power, as I walked I fell asleep. 1:9 And a Spirit took me, and bore me away through a pathless tract, through which no man could pass: 1:10 for the place was precipitous, and broken into clefts by reason of the waters. [Hiatus] 13:1 When she had said this, she wished to depart; 13:2 but, falling at vision which she promised. 13:3 Then she again took me by the hand, and raiseth me, and seateth me on the couch at the left hand, while she herself sat on the right. 13:4 And lifting up a certain glistening rod, she saith to me, `Seest thou a great thing'? 13:5 I say to her, ` Lady, I see nothing'. 13:6 She saith to me, `Look thou; 13:7 dost thou not see in front of thee a great TOWER being builded upon the waters, of glistening square stones'? 13:8 Now the TOWER was being builded foursquare by the six young men that came with her. 13:9 And countless other men were bringing stones, some of them from the deep, and others from the land, and were handing them to the six young men. 13:10 And they took them and builded. 13:11 The stones that were dragged from the deep they placed in every case, 13:12 just as they were, into the building, for they had been shaped, and they fitted in their joining with the other stones; 13:13 and they adhered so closely one with another that their joining could not possibly be detected; 13:14 and the building of the TOWER appeared as if it were built of one stone. 13:15 But of the other stones which were brought from the dry land, some they threw away, and some they put into the building; 13:16 and others they broke in pieces, and threw to a distance from the TOWER. 13:17 Now many other stones were lying round the TOWER, and they did not use them for the building; 13:18 for some of them were mildewed, and others had cracks ill them, and others were too short, and others were white and round, and did not fit into the building. 13:19 And I saw other stones thrown to a distance from the TOWER, and coming to the way, and yet not staying in the way, but rolling to where there was no way; 13:20 and others falling into the fire and burning there;

14:1 When she had shown me these things, she wished to hurry these things, and yet not to know what the things mean'? 14:2 She answered and said unto me, `Thou art an over-curious fellow, in desiring to know all that concerns the TOWER'. 14:3 `Yea, lady', I said, `that I may announce it to any brethren, and that they [may be the more gladdened and] when they hear [these things] may know the Lord in great glory'. 14:4 `Then said she, `Many shall hear; 14:5 but when they hear, some of them shall be glad, and others shall weep. 14:6 Yet even these latter, if they hear and repent, shall likewise be glad. 14:7 Hear thou therefore the parables of the TOWER; 14:8 for I will reveal all things unto thee. 14:9 And trouble me no more about revelation; 14:10 for these revelations have an end, seeing that they have been completed. 14:11 Nevertheless thou wilt not cease asking for revelations; 14:12 for thou art shameless.

15:1 `The TOWER, which thou seest building, is myself, the Church, which was seen of thee both now and aforetime. 15:2 Ask, therefore, what thou willest concerning the TOWER, and I will reveal it unto thee, that thou mayest rejoice with the saints'. 15:3 I say unto her, Lady, since thou didst hold me worthy once for all, that thou shouldest reveal all things to me, reveal them'. 15:4 Then she saith to me, `Whatsoever is possible to be revealed to thee, shall be revealed. 15:5 Only let thy heart be with God, and doubt not in thy mind about that which thou seest'. 15:6 I asked her, `Wherefore is the TOWER builded upon waters, lady'? 15:7 `I told thee so before', said she, `and indeed thou dost enquire diligently. 15:8 So by thy enquiry thou discoverest the truth. 15:9 Hear then why the TOWER is builded upon waters; 15:10 it is because your life is saved and shall be saved by water.

16:1 I answered and said unto her, 16:2 `Lady, this thing is great and `These are the holy angels of GOD, that were created first of all, unto whom the Lord delivered all His creation to increase and to build it, and to be masters of all creation. 16:3 By their hands therefore the building of the TOWER will be accomplished'. 16:4 `And who are the others who are bringing the stones'? 16:5 `They also are holy angels of God; 16:6 but these six are superior to them. 16:7 The building of the TOWER then shall be accomplished, and all alike shall rejoice in the (completed) circle of the TOWER, and shall glorify God that the building of the TOWER was accomplished'. 16:8 I enquired of her, saying, ` Lady, I could wish to know concerning the end of the stones, and their power, of what kind it is'. [Hiatus] 17:7 Therefore their joinings fit together in the building of the TOWER'. 17:8 `But they that are dragged from the deep, and placed in the building, and that fit together in their joinings with the other stones that are already builded in, who are they'? 17:9 `These are they that suffered for the name of the Lord'. 17:10 `But the other stones that are brought from the dry land, I would fain know who these are, lady'. 17:11 She said, `Those that go to the building, and yet are not hewn, these the Lord hath approved because they walked in the uprightness of the Lord, and rightly performed His commandments'. 17:12 `But they that are brought and placed in the building, who are they'? 17:13 `They are young in the faith, and faithful; 17:14 but they are warned by the angels to do good, because wickedness was found in them'. 17:15 `But those whom they rejected and threw away, who are they'? 17:16 `These have sinned, and desire to repent, therefore they were not cast to a great distance from the TOWER, because they will be useful for the building, if they repent. 17:17 They then that shall repent, if they repent, will be strong in the faith, if they repent now while the TOWER is building. 17:18 But if the building shall be finished, they have no more any place, but shall be castaways.

18:1 But wouldst thou know about them that are broken in pieces, and cast away far from the TOWER? 18:2 These are the sons of wickedness was absent from them. 18:3 Therefore they have not salvation, for they are not useful for building by reason of their wickednesses. [Hiatus] 21:1 `But the other stones which thou sawest cast far away from the TOWER and falling into the way and rolling out of the way into believed, 21:2 but by reason of their double heart they abandon their true way. [Hiatus] 21:9 Then, when they call to their remembrance the purity of the truth, they change their minds, and go back again after their evil desires'. 21:10 So she finished the explanation of the TOWER. 21:11 Still importunate, I asked her further, whether for all these stones that were rejected and would not fit into the building of the TOWER there was repentance, and they had a place in this TOWER. 21:12 `They can repent', she said, `but they cannot be fitted into this TOWER. 21:13 Yet they shall be fitted into another place much more humble, but not until they have undergone torments, and have fulfilled the days of their sins. 21:14 And they shall be changed for this reason, because they participated it, the Righteous Word; 21:15 and then shall it befall them to be relieved from their torments, if the evil deeds, that they have done, come into their heart;

22:1 When then I ceased asking her concerning all these things, desirous of beholding, I was greatly rejoiced that I should see it. 22:2 She looked upon me, and smiled, and she saith to me, `Seest thou seven women round the TOWER'? 22:3 `I see them, lady', say I. 22:4 `This TOWER is supported by them by commandment of the Lord. 22:5 Hear now their employments. [Hiatus] 22:19 Their works then are pure and reverent and divine. 22:20 Whosoever therefore shall serve these women, and shall have strength to master their works, shall have his dwelling in the TOWER with the saints of God'. 22:21 Then I asked her concerning the seasons, whether the consummation is even now. 22:22 But she cried aloud, saying, ` Foolish man, seest thou not that the TOWER is still a-building? 22:23 Whensoever therefore the TOWER shall be finished building, the end cometh; 22:24 but it shall be built up quickly. 22:25 Ask me no more questions: [Hiatus] 23:11 Ye then that have more than enough, seek out them that are hungry, while the TOWER is still unfinished; 23:12 for after the TOWER is finished, ye will desire to do good, and will find no place for it. 23:13 Look ye therefore, ye that exult in your wealth, 23:14 lest they that are in want shall moan, and their moaning shall go up unto the Lord, and ye with your [abundance of) good things be shut outside the door of the TOWER. [Hiatus]

24:1 When then she ceased speaking with me, the six young men, who were building, came, and took her away to the TOWER, and other four lifted the couch, and took it also away to the TOWER. 24:2 I saw not the face of these, for they were turned away. [Hiatus] 26:10 And therefore He showed you the building of the TOWER; [Hiatus] 30:9 For as the gold loses its dross, so ye also shall cast away all sorrow and tribulation, and shall be purified, and shall be useful for the building of the TOWER. 30:10 But the white portion is the coming age, in which the elect of God shall dwell; 30:11 because the elect of God shall be without spot and pure unto life eternal. [Hiatus] 77:2 And crowns were brought, made as it were of palm-branches; 77:3 and he crowned the men that had given up the rods which had the shoots and some fruit, and sent them away into the TOWER. 77:4 And the others also he sent into the TOWER, even those who had given up the rods green and with shoots, but the shoots were without fruit; 77:5 and he set a seal upon them. 77:6 And all they that went into the TOWER had the same raiment, white as snow. 77:7 And those that had given up their rods green as they received them, he sent away, giving them a [white] robe, and seals. [Hiatus] 78:15 I say unto him; 78:16 `Sir, wherefore did he send away some into the TOWER, and leave others for thee?' 78:17 `As many,' saith he, `as transgressed the law which they received from him, these he left under my authority for repentance; 78:18 but as many as already satisfied the law and have observed it, these he has under his own authority.' 78:19 `Who then, Sir,' say I, `are they that have been crowned and go into the TOWER? 78:20 `[`As many,' saith he, `as wrestled with the devil and overcame him in their wrestling, are crowned:] [Hiatus] 79:14 Then those gave them up who had had the half-withered and with cracks; 79:15 and many of them gave them up green and without cracks; 79:16 and some gave them up green and with shoots, and fruits on the shoots, such as those had who went into the TOWER crowned; 79:17 and some gave them up withered and eaten, and some withered and uneaten, and some such as they were, half-withered and with cracks. [Hiatus]

81:26 And as many as shall not repent, have lost their life; 81:27 but as many of them as repented, became good; 81:28 and their dwelling was placed within the first walls, and some of them even ascended into the TOWER. 81:29 Thou seest then,' [saith he,] `that repentance from sins bringeth life, but not to repent bringeth death. 82:1 `But as many as gave up (the rods) half-withered, and with cracks in them, hear also concerning these. 82:2 Those whose rods were half-withered throughout are the double-minded; 82:3 for they neither live nor are dead. 82:4 But those that have them half-withered and cracks in then,, these are both double-minded and slanderers, and are never at peace among themselves but always causing dissensions. 82:5 Yet even to these,' [saith he,] `repentence is given. 82:6 Thou seest,' [saith he,] `that some of them have repented; 82:7 and there is still,' saith he, `hope of repentance among them. 82:8 And as many of them,' saith he, `as have repented, have their abode within the TOWER but as many of them as have repented tardily shall abide within the walls; 82:9 and as many as repent not, but continue in their doings, shall die the death. [Hiatus] 82:13 They have their habitation, therefore, within the TOWER. 82:14 But if any one shall again turn to dissension, he shall be cast out from the TOWER and shall lose his life. 82:15 Life is for all those that keep the commandments of the Lord. 82:16 But in the commandments there is nothing about first places, or about glory of any kind, but about long-suffering and humility in man. 82:17 In such men, therefore, is the life of the Lord, but in factious and lawless men is death. 83:1 `But they that gave up their rods half green and half withered, these are they that are mixed up in business and cleave not to the saints. 83:2 Therefore the one half of them liveth, but the other half is dead. 83:3 Many then when they heard my commandments repented. 83:4 As many then as repented, have their abode within the TOWER. 83:5 But some of them altogether stood aloof. 83:6 These then have no repentance; 83:7 for by reason of their business affairs they blasphemed the Lord and denied Him. 83:8 So they lost their life for the wickedness that they committed. 83:9 But many of them were doubtful-minded. 83:10 These still have place for repentance, if they repent quickly, and their dwelling shall be within the TOWER; 83:11 and if they repent tardily, they shall dwell within the walls; 83:12 but if they repent not, they too have lost their life. 83:13 But they that have given up two parts green and the third part withered, these are they that have denied with manifold denials. 83:14 Many of them therefore repented, and departed to dwell inside the TOWER; 83:15 but many utterly rebelled from God; 83:16 these lost their life finally. 83:17 And some of them were double-minded and caused dissensions. 83:18 For these then there is repentance, if they repent speedily and continue not in their pleasures; 83:19 but if they continue in their doings, they likewise procure for themselves death. 84:1 `But they that have given up their rods two thirds withered and one third green, these are men who have been believers, but grew rich and became renowned among the Gentiles. 84:2 They clothed themselves with great pride and became high-minded, 84:3 and abandoned the truth and did not cleave to the righteous, but lived together after the manner of the Gentiles, and the path appeared the more pleasant unto them; 84:4 yet they departed not from God, but continued in the faith, though they wrought not the works of the faith. 84:5 Many of them therefore repented, and they had their habitation within the TOWER. 84:6 But others at the last living with the Gentiles, and being corrupted by the vain opinions of the Gentiles, departed from God, and worked the works of the Gentiles. 84:7 These therefore were numbered with the Gentiles. 84:8 But others of them were doubtful-minded, not hoping to be saved by reason of the deeds that they had done; 84:9 and others were double-minded and made divisions among themselves. 84:10 For these then that were double-minded by reason of their doings there is still repentance; 84:11 but their repentance ought to be speedy, that their dwelling may be within the TOWER; 84:12 but for those who repent not, but continue in their pleasures, death is nigh. 85:1 `But they that gave up their rods green, yet with the extreme ends withered and with cracks; 85:2 these were found at all times good and faithful and glorious in the sight of God, 85:3 but they sinned to a very slight degree by reason of little desires and because they had somewhat against one another. 85:4 But, when they heard my words, the greater part quickly repented, and their dwelling was assigned within the TOWER. 85:5 But some of them were double-minded, and some being double-minded made a greater dissension. 85:6 In these then there is still a hope of repentance, because they were found always good; 85:7 and hardly shall one of them die. 85:8 But they that gave up their rods withered, yet with a very small part green, these are they that believed, but practiced the works of lawlessness. 85:9 Still they never separated from God, but bore the Name gladly, and gladly received into their houses the servants of God. 85:10 So hearing of this repentance they repented without wavering, and they practice all excellence and righteousness. 85:11 And some of them even suffer persecution willingly, knowing the deeds that they did. 85:12 All these then shall have their dwelling within the TOWER. [Hiatus] [PARABLE THE NINTH]. 87:2 After I had written down the commandments and parables of the shepherd, the angel of repentance, he came to me and saith with thee in the form of the Church, showed unto thee. 87:3 For that Spirit is the Son of God. 87:4 For when thou wast weaker in the flesh, it was not declared unto thee through an angel; 87:5 but when thou wast enabled through the Spirit, and didst grow mighty in thy strength so that thou couldest even see an angel, 87:6 then at length was manifested unto thee, through the Church, the building of the TOWER. 87:7 In fair and seemly manner hast thou seen all things, (instructed) as it were by a virgin; 87:8 but now thou seest (being instructed by an angel, though by the same Spirit; 87:9 yet must thou learn everything more accurately from me.[Hiatus] 89:4 And there arose a great noise from those men who had come to build the TOWER, as they ran hither and thither round the gate. 89:5 For the virgins standing round the gate told the men to hasten to build the TOWER. 89:6 Now the virgins had spread out their hands, as if they would take something from the men. 89:7 And the six men ordered stones to come up from a certain deep place, and to go to the building of the TOWER. 89:8 And there went up ten stones square and polished, [not] hewn from a quarry. 89:9 And the six men called to the virgins, and ordered them to carry all the stones which should go unto the building of the TOWER, and to pass through the gate and to hand them to the men that were about to build the TOWER. 89:10 And the virgins laid the first ten stones that rose out of the deep on each other, and they carried them together, stone by stone. 90:1 And just as they stood together around the gate, in that order they carried them that seemed to be strong enough and had stooped under the corners of the stone, while the others stooped at the sides of the stone. 90:2 And so they carried all the stones. 90:3 And they carried them right through the gate, as they were ordered, and handed them to the men for the TOWER; 90:4 and these took the stones and builded. 90:5 Now the building of the TOWER was upon the great rock and above the gate. 90:6 Those ten stones then were joined together, and they covered the whole rock. 90:7 And these formed a foundation for the building of the TOWER. 90:8 And [the rock and] the gate supported the whole TOWER. 90:9 And, after the ten stones, other twenty-five stones came up from the deep, and these were fitted into the building of the TOWER, being carried by the virgins, like the former. 90:10 And after these thirty-five stones came up. 90:11 And these likewise were fitted into the TOWER. 90:12 And after these came up other forty stones, and these all were put into the building of the TOWER. 90:13 So four rows were made in the foundations of the TOWER. 90:14 And (the stones) ceased coming up from the deep, and the builders likewise ceased for a little. 90:15 And again the six men ordered the multitude of the people to bring in stones from the mountains for the building of the TOWER. 90:16 They were brought in accordingly from all the mountains, of various colours, shaped by the men, and were handed to the virgins; 90:17 and the virgins carried them right through the gate, and handed them in for the building of the TOWER. 90:18 And when the various stones were placed in the building, they became all alike and white, and they lost their various colours. 90:19 But some stones were handed in by the men for the building, and these did not become bright; 90:20 but just as they were placed, such likewise were they found; 90:21 for they were not handed in by the virgins, nor had they been carried in through the gate. 90:22 These stones then were unsightly in the building of the TOWER. 90:23 Then the six men, seeing the stones that were unsightly in the building, ordered them to be removed and carried [below] into their own place whence they were brought. 90:24 And they say to the men who were bringing the stones in; 90:25 `Abstain for your parts altogether from handing in stones for the building; 90:26 but place them by the TOWER, that the virgins may carry them through the gate, and hand them in for the building. 90:27 For if,' [say they,] `they be not carried in through the gate by the hands of these virgins, they cannot change their colours. 90:28 Labor not therefore,' [say they,] `in vain. 91:1 And the building was finished on that day, yet was not the TOWER finally completed, for it was to be carried up [still] higher; 91:2 and there was a cessation in the building. 91:3 And the six men ordered the builders to retire for a short time [all of them], and to rest; 91:4 but the virgins they ordered not to retire from the TOWER. 91:5 And me thought the virgins were left to guard the TOWER. 91:6 And after all had retired [and rested], I say to the shepherd; 91:7 `How is it, Sir,' say I, `that the building of the TOWER was not completed?' 91:8 `The TOWER,' he saith, `cannot yet he fully completed, until its master come and test this building, that if any stones be found crumbling, he may change them; 91:9 for the TOWER is being built according to His will.' 91:10 `I would fain know, Sir,' say I, 91:11 `what is this building of this TOWER, and concerning the rock and gate, and the mountains, and the virgins, and the stones that came up from the deep, and were not shaped, hut went just as they were into the building; 91:12 and wherefore ten stones were first placed in the foundations, 91:13 then twenty-five, then thirty-five, then forty, 91:14 and concerning the stones that had gone to the building and were removed again and put away in their own place-concerning all these things set my soul at rest, Sir, and explain them to me.' 91:15 `If,' saith he, `thou be not found possessed of an idle curiosity, thou shalt know all things. 91:16 For after a few days we shall come here, and thou shalt see the sequel that overtaketh this TOWER and shalt understand all the parables accurately.' 91:17 And after a few days we came to the place where we had sat, and he saith to me, `Let us go to the TOWER; 91:18 for the owner of the TOWER cometh to inspect it.' 91:19 And we came to the TOWER, and there was no one at all by it, save the virgins alone. 91:20 And the shepherd asked the virgins whether the master of the TOWER had arrived. 91:21 And they said that he would be there directly to inspect the building.

92:1 And, behold, after a little while I see an array of many men coming, and in the midst a man of such lofty stature that he overtopped the TOWER. 92:2 And the six men who superintended the building walked with him on the right hand and on the left, and all they that worked at the building were with him, and many other glorious attendants around him. 92:3 And the virgins that watched the TOWER ran up and kissed him, and they began to walk by his side round the TOWER. 92:4 And that man inspected the building so carefully, that he felt each single stone; 92:5 and he held a rod in his hand and struck each single stone that was built in. 92:6 And when he smote, some of the stones became black as soot, others mildewed, 92:7 others cracked, others broke off short, others became neither white nor black, others rough and not fitting in with the other stones, and others with many spots; 92:8 these were the varied aspects of the stones which were found unsound for the building. 92:9 So he ordered all these to be removed from the TOWER, and to be placed by the side of the TOWER, and other stones to be brought and put into their place. 92:10 And the builders asked him from what mountain he desired stones to be brought and put into their place. 92:11 And he would not have them brought from the mountains, but ordered them to be brought from a certain plain that was nigh at hand. 92:12 And the plain was dug, and stones were found there bright and square, but some of them too were round. 92:13 And all the stones which there were anywhere in that plain were brought every one of them, and were carried through the gate by the virgins. 92:14 And the square stones were hewed, and set in the place of those which had been removed; 92:15 but the round ones were not placed in the building, because they were too hard to be shaped, and to work on them was slow. 92:16 So they were placed by the side of the TOWER, as though they were intended to be shaped and placed in the building; 92:17 for they were very bright.

93:1 So then, having accomplished these things, 93:2 the glorious man who was lord of the whole TOWER called the shepherd to him, 93:3 and delivered unto him all the stones which lay by the side of the TOWER, which were cast out from the building, and saith unto him; 93:4 `Clean these stones carefully, and set them in the building of the TOWER, these, I mean, which can fit with the rest; 93:5 but those which will not fit, throw far away from the TOWER.' 93:6 Having given these orders to the shepherd, he departed from the TOWER with all those with whom he had come. 93:7 And the virgins stood round the TOWER watching it. 93:8 I say to the shepherd, `How can these stones go again to the building of the TOWER, seeing that they have been disapproved?' 93:9 He saith unto me in answer; 93:10 `Seest thou,' saith he, `these stones?' 93:11 `I see them, Sir,' say I. 93:12 `I myself,' saith he, will shape the greater part of these stones and put them into the building, and they shall fit in with the remaining stones.' 93:13 `How, Sir,' say I, `can they, when they are chiseled, fill the same space?' 93:14 He saith unto me in answer, As many as shall be found small, shall be put into the middle of the building; 93:15 but as many as are larger, shall be placed nearer the outside, and they will bind them together.' 93:16 With these words he saith to me, Let us go away, and after two days let us come and clean these stones, and put them into the building; 93:17 for all things round the TOWER must be made clean, 93:18 lest haply the master come suddenly and find the circuit of the TOWER dirty, 93:19 and he be wroth, and so these stones shall not go to the building of the TOWER, and I shall appear to be careless in my master's sight.

94:1 And after two days we came to the TOWER, and he saith unto me; 94:2 `Let us inspect all the stones, and see those which can go to the building.' 94:3 I say to him, `Sir, let us inspect them.' 94:4 And so commencing first we began to inspect the black stones; 94:5 and just as they were when set aside from the building, such also they were found. 94:6 And the shepherd ordered them to be removed from the TOWER and to be put on one side. 94:7 Then he inspected those that were mildewed, and he took and shaped many of them, and ordered the virgins to take them up and put them into the building. 94:8 And the virgins took them up and placed them in the building of the TOWER in a middle position. 94:9 But the rest he ordered to be placed with the black ones; 94:10 for these also were found black. 94:11 Then he began to inspect those that had the cracks; 94:12 and of these he shaped many, and he ordered them to be carried away by the hands of the virgins for the building. 94:13 And they were placed towards the outside, because they were found to be sounder. 94:14 But the rest could not be shaped owing to the number of the cracks. 94:15 For this reason therefore they were cast aside front the building of the TOWER. 94:16 Then he proceeded to inspect the stunted (stones), and many among them were found black, and some had contracted great cracks; 94:17 and he ordered these also to be placed with those that had been cast aside. 94:18 But those of them which remained he cleaned and shaped, and ordered to he placed in the building. 94:19 So the virgins took them up, and fitted them into the middle of the building of the TOWER; 94:20 for they were somewhat weak. 94:21 Then he began to inspect those that were half white and half black, and many of them were (now) found black; 94:22 and he ordered these also to be taken up with those that had been cast aside. 94:23 *But all the rest were [found white, and were] taken up by the virgins; 94:24 for being white they were fitted by [the virgins] them[selves] into the building. 94:25 *But they were placed towards the outside, because they were found sound, so that they could hold together those that were placed in the middle; 94:26 for not a single one of them was too short. 94:27 Then he began to inspect the hard and rough; 94:28 and a few of them were cast away, because they could not be shaped; 94:29 for they were found very hard. 94:30 But the rest of them were shaped [and taken up by the virgins] and fitted into the middle of the building of the TOWER; 94:31 for they were somewhat weak. [Hiatus] 95:13 But the rest, which remained over, were taken up, and put aside into the plain whence they were brought; 95:14 they were not however cast away, `Because,' saith he, `there remaineth still a little of the TOWER to be builded. 95:15 And the master of the TOWER is exceedingly anxious that these stones be fitted into the building, for they are very bright. 95:16 So twelve women were called, most beautiful in form, clad in black, [girded about and having the shoulders bare,] with their hair hanging loose. 95:17 And these women, me thought, had a savage look. 95:18 And the shepherd ordered them to take up the stones which had been cast away from the building, and to carry them off to the same mountains from which also they had been brought; 95:19 and they took them up joyfully, and carried away all the stones and put them in the place whence they had been taken. 95:20 And after all the stones had been taken up, and not a single stone still lay round the TOWER, the shepherd saith unto me; 95:21 Let us go round the TOWER, and see that there is no defect in it. 95:22 And I proceeded to go round it with him. 95:23 And when the shepherd saw that the TOWER was very comely in the building, he was exceedingly glad; 95:24 for the TOWER was so well builded, that when I saw it I coveted the building of it ; 95:25 for it was builded, as it were, of one stone, having one fitting in it. 95:26 And the stone-work appeared as if hewn out of the rock; 95:27 for it seemed to be all a single stone.

96:1 And I, as I walked with him, was glad to see so brave a sight. 96:2 And the shepherd saith to me `Go and bring plaster and fine clay, that I may fill up the shapes of the stones that have been taken up and put into the building; 96:3 for all the circuit of the TOWER must be made smooth. 96:4 And I did is he bade, and brought them to him. 96:5 `Assist me,' saith he, `and the work will speedily be accomplished. 96:6 So he filled in the shapes of the stones which had gone to the building, and ordered the circuit of the TOWER to be swept and made clean. 96:7 And the virgins took brooms and swept, and they removed all the rubbish from the TOWER, and sprinkled water, and the site of the TOWER was made cheerful and very seemly. 96:8 The shepherd saith unto me, `All,' saith he, `hath now been cleaned. 96:9 If the lord come to inspect the TOWER, he hath nothing for which to blame us.' 96:10 Saying this, he desired to go away. [Hiatus] 97:15 for we love thee dearly.' 97:16 But I was ashamed to abide with them. 97:17 And she that seemed to be the chief of them began to kiss and to embrace me; 97:18 and the others seeing her embrace me, they too began to kiss me, and to lead me round the TOWER, and to sport with me. 97:19 And I had become as it were a younger man, and I commenced myself likewise to sport with them. 97:20 For some of them began to dance, [others to skip,] others to sing. 97:21 But I kept silence and walked with them round the TOWER, and was glad with them. 97:22 But when evening came I wished to go away home; 97:23 but they would not let me go, but detained me. 97:24 And I stayed the nigh with them, and I slept by the side of the TOWER. 97:25 For the virgins spread their linen tunics on the ground, and made me lie down in the midst of them, and they did nothing else but pray; 97:26 and I prayed with them without ceasing, and not less than they. 97:27 And the virgins rejoiced that I so prayed. [Hiatus] 98:9 Didst thou see,' saith he, 98:10 `that the stones which came through the gate have gone to the building of the TOWER, but those which came not through it were cast away again to their own place?' 98:11 `I saw, Sir,' say I. 98:12 "Thus,' saith he, `no one shall enter into the kingdom of God, except he receive the name of His Son. 98:13 For if thou wishest to enter into any city, and that city is walled all round and has one gate only, canst thou enter into that city except through the gate which it hath?' 98:14 `Why, how, Sir,' say I, `is it possible otherwise?' 98:15 `If then thou canst not enter into the city except through the gate itself, even so, saith he, `a man cannot enter into the kingdom of God except by the name of His Son that is beloved by Him. 98:16 Didst thou see,' saith he, `the multitude that is building the TOWER?' 98:17 `I saw it, Sir,' say I. 98:18 `They,' saith he, are all glorious angels. 98:19 With these then the Lord is walled around. 98:20 But the gate is the Son of God; 98:21 there is this one entrance only to the Lord. 98:22 No one then shall enter in unto Him otherwise than through His Son. 98:23 Didst thou see,' saith he, `the six men, and the glorious and mighty man in the midst of them, him that walked about the TOWER and rejected the stones from the building?'

99:1 `But the TOWER,' say I, what is it? 99:2 "The TOWER,' saith he, why, this is the Church. 99:3 `And these virgins, who are they?' 99:4 `They,' saith he, `are unless these shall clothe him with their garment; 99:5 for if thou receive only the name, but receive not the garment from them, thou profitest nothing. 99:6 For these virgins are powers of the Son of God. 99:7 If [therefore] thou bear the Name, and bear not His power, thou shalt bear His Name to none effect. 99:8 And the stones,' saith he, which thou didst see cast away, these bare the Name, but clothed not themselves with the raiment of the virgins.' 99:9 `Of what sort, Sir,' say I, `is their raiment? 99:10 "The names themselves,' saith he, `are their raiment. 99:11 `Whosoever beareth the Name of the Son of God, ought to bear the names of these also; 99:12 for even the Son Himself beareth the names of these virgins. 99:13 As many stones,' saith he, `as thou sawest enter into the building of the TOWER, being given in by their hands and waiting for the building, they have been clothed in the power of these virgins. 99:14 For this cause thou seest the TOWER made a single stone with the rock. 99:15 So also they that have believed in the Lord through His Son and clothe themselves in these spirits, shall become one spirit and one body, and their garments all of one colour. 99:16 But such persons as bear the names of the virgins have their dwelling in the TOWER.' 99:17 `The stones then, Sir,' say I, which are cast aside, wherefore were they cast aside? 99:18 For they passed through the gate and were placed in the building of the TOWER by the hands of the virgins.' 99:19 `Since all these things interest thee,' saith he, `and thou enquirest diligently, listen as touching the stones that have been cast aside. [Hiatus] 100:4 For this is the reason why there was also a cessation in the building, that, if these repent, they may go into the building of the TOWER; 100:5 but if they repent not, then others will go, and these shall be cast away finally.' 100:6 For all these things I gave thanks unto the Lord, because He had compassion on all that called upon His name, 100:7 and sent forth the angel of repentance to us that had sinned against Him, and refreshed our spirit, and, when we were already ruined and had no hope of life, restored our life. 100:8 `Now, Sir,' say I, show me why the TOWER is not built upon the ground, but upon the rock and upon the gate.' 100:9 `Because thou art senseless,' saith he, `and without understanding [thou askest the question].' [Hiatus] 101:18 `Wherefore then, Sir,' say I, `did the virgins give in these stones also for the building of the TOWER and carry them through the gate? 101:19 " Because these first, 'saith he, 101:20 `bore these spirits, and they never separated the one from the other, neither the spirits from the men nor the men from the spirits, but the spirits abode with them till they fell asleep; [Hiatus] 102:18 For this cause also they came up with them, and were fitted with them into the building of the TOWER and were builded with them, without being shaped; 102:19 for they fell asleep in righteousness and in great purity' 102:22 I have, Sir,' say I.

117:1 Hear,' saith he, `likewise concerning all these things. 117:2 The stones which were taken from the plain and placed in the building of the TOWER in the room of those that were rejected, are the roots of this white mountain. 117:3 When then they that believed from this mountain were all found guileless, the lord of the TOWER ordered these from the roots of this mountain to be put into the building of the TOWER. 117:4 For He knew that if these stones should go to the building [of the TOWER], they would remain bright and not one of then would turn black. 117:5 But if he had added (stones) from the other mountains, he would have been obliged to visit that TOWER again, and to purify it. 117:6 Now all these have been found white, who have believed and who shall believe; 117:7 for they are of the same kind. [Hiatus] 117:14 So therefore they have been cut away a little, and placed in the building of this TOWER.

CONCLUSION: What we see in the above three texts is a common usage of the word TOWER that is associated with the meaning of TEMPLE (with the word "Temple" in the Shepherd of Hermas denoting the Ekklesia of God). For all of you who wish to view the whole texts of these three books, you can click into the ASK Home Page on the Internet and we have LINKS to various educational institutions in the United States and Europe who have downloaded these texts for all people to read – and they are FREE to view. The object of this study is simply to show the TEMPLE/TOWER connection was a normal one because the actual Temple of Herod in Jerusalem was a TOWER (as square building) 45 stories high.

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