Israel Should Cease it's Military Conquests Post Haste!
By Ernest L. Martin, Ph.D., 2001
Read the accompanying Newsletter for October 2001
There is a plain and obvious reason for the recent terrorist attack on the United States. It revolves around a central issue that is utterly evident to any unbiased political observer of world affairs. The evaluation I make is not an unrealistic and naively simplistic conclusion of what some people consider a complex subject. The matter is easy to understand. The essence of the whole problem (and the knowledge of what I am going to say about it) is of paramount importance and my assessment hits the proverbial nail on its head. The fact is, that particular terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon (and perhaps the other airplane was headed for the White House or our Capitol building) was to bring the war now being conducted between the State of Israel and the Palestinian people in Jerusalem and other areas of the Holy Land into the heart of the American homeland. It was designed specifically to make America share in its supposed uncompromising support of Israel in the attrition of the continuing belligerence in the Middle East. In order to acknowledge and condemn this “shared” responsibility (as many Palestinians and Muslims view it), four groups of criminals (and worse yet, they should be reckoned as four groups of inhumane terrorists who flout in our faces the world’s standards of civilized conduct) were able to bring the same horror to downtown America.
Sad to say, it appears that these groups who accomplished these diabolical actions were perhaps Palestinians or Muslims from other countries. At this early date in the investigation no one can be sure who they were. 1 Still, without the slightest compunction, we all ought to join hands with President Bush in supporting the American resolve to bring the perpetrators of these crimes to justice, but even more than that, to root out and to destroy all such cells of rebellion in the world that harbor such heinous persons. Thankfully, most people and nations of the world agree with this procedure and the majority are willing to help the United States do its job of retribution and in making the world again safe for democracy. Our united stand should be an example to all civilized nations.
In this fight for the retention of democracy and its principles, I have a request to make to the State and People of Israel. They have been our friends for the past 53 years, and we have been theirs. Now is the time for friends to really be friends to solve a major problem in the world that deserves serious and immediate consideration. I ask the government and people of Israel to do something that would add a tremendous protection for them, for the United States, and for the world at large from further terrorist attacks similar to the ones we recently witnessed.
Israel could easily perform what is asked because the United States and the rest of the world would back up their efforts. It would not be a “giving in” to the actions of terrorists out of fear or cowardice, but it would be a genuine response to the resolve of all civilized nations who are now banding together to stamp out all forms of terrorist activities in the world (including all those now being done in the Holy Land). Israel’s positive response would not justify or make heroes of terrorists because “good” came from their evil actions. What it would do, however, is simply underline a need that all people in the world have realized has been evident for almost a decade of years. This need revolves around a quest of peoples in the region of Jerusalem, Palestine, and Israel to establish a just and honorable peace to all the parties in the area.
What does Israel need to do? It is simple. Israel should immediately cease all military actions of conquest against the indigenous peoples of Palestine and other Arab areas. They should denounce any attempt of theirs to fulfill what they believe to be teachings from the Scriptures that supposedly vindicates their right to a military conquest of the former lands given them and others in the covenant of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
Erroneous teachings about the Bible should stop. Israel should give up such military actions because they cannot be justified from the teachings of either the Old or the New Testaments. They should NOT WAIT for negotiations with the Palestinians; they should unilaterally do it NOW. If Israel would do so, the potential for more terrorist attacks by Palestinians and Muslims would in many cases cease to exist and the world could return to normalcy in a reasonable peace and security for all. And though the recent attacks on New York and Washington, D.C. should be utterly condemned and the offenders punished, those acts can be dealt with separately and with full justice and retribution for the perpetrators. But if Israel would begin to abide by the teachings of their own Holy Scriptures in this regard and do what I am suggesting (and in the wake of the terrorists acts upon the United States), at least a margin of good could result because of those heinous incidents.
We should also be honest in our appraisals and admit that the recent terrorist activities against the United States are not the sole reason that prompts the world at this time to ask Israel for a cease-fire. The main reason is simply for humanitarian purposes. Indeed, these matters of inciting terrorist actions also involve Israel. They have consistently in their modern history used massive military force to achieve their goals of inheriting the biblical lands promised to the patriarchs. Israel has felt it perfectly proper to do such things. But a close study of the Holy Scriptures (even the Old Testament they call the Tanak) does not vindicate the actions they have taken or are now pursuing. This is an appeal for Israel to stop its further planned maneuvers for the military conquest of Jerusalem and Palestine. Only under God’s Messiah are such wars sanctioned.
It is a mistake of the highest order to assume that the State of Israel at the present time has a right (from biblical teaching and even prophecy) to use its military forces to create a Jewish State of their own. There is not a scintilla of biblical teaching that the government and people of Israel at the present should use military force of unprecedented power and authority to conquer the lands once given to Israel in the time of Moses. That is a fact.
The teaching of the Holy Scriptures is clear on this matter. This is why I ask the government and people of Israel to immediately stop their attempt to fulfill by military actions the conquest of the lands once given to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
This would be best done (and I believe President Bush and most of the American people would agree) if Israel not only states that it shares the same democratic sense of values and principles that all such modern and humane governments afford to all their citizens, but that they actively and immediately put those ideals of democratic government in action for all people in the lands they govern.
(1) That is, Israel should at once grant full democratic protections like those we have in the United States with utmost fairness and equality being shown to all its citizens (and to those who live in its territories).
(2) They should also support a separate State of Palestine for some of the people of the Land of Canaan who are representatives of the earlier Philistines who have lived in the area from before the time of Abraham. This is because God has prophesied that such a State of Palestine will be in existence before the Messianic kingdom arrives on earth. 2
(3) Israel should at once establish in Israel (and with ramifications that reach out to include Palestine and other surrounding areas) a free and honorable society that guarantees the same equality of life and civil liberties to all peoples within their borders as those like we now maintain in the United States and other similar states of the western world. What they can do in this maneuver will be to aid not only the United States, but all the rest of the world, including Israel itself, in creating a just society of peoples in the Middle East that will cause all terrorist groups to cease their actions against what they consider to be misdeeds to other peoples because all peoples in the Middle East will then be treated fairly, justly, and honorably.
(4) This is why Israel needs to stop all military actions against the indigenous peoples of Jerusalem and Palestine and inform them that they (from now on — and it will take Israel a few years to do it) should begin to create a modern nation in the Middle East that will resemble the free and democratic states of the western world and will be an example to all others in the region to emulate.
In order to begin the process properly, the State and People of Israel should cease using the erroneous teaching that the Holy Scriptures supposedly gives them the divine right to uproot all the non-Jewish people in the area by military force from their homes or lands on which they have lived for hundreds and thousands of years. Without the true Messiah at the helm (which Israel does not have), neither the Old Testament (nor the New) gives the slightest suggestion that Israel of itself in this age should be using military force for the sole purpose of acquiring to themselves the Holy Land by forced conquest.
The justification for such military actions to accomplish the task is NOT FOUND anywhere within the pages of the Holy Scriptures. The only weapons that I can read about to justify Israel as possessing in their modern return from Exile into the lands of their fathers is the use of the “slingstones” (Zechariah 9:15). But even that illustration is a metaphorical one meaning that they ought to be like David and let the armies of Israel and the Philistines watch on the side while one stone in Goliath’s head won the battle without war (1 Samuel 17:49–50). In the real return from Exile, the nations of the world will actually aid Israel in a joyful and willing manner in Israel’s quest to live in the Holy Land (Isaiah 55:4–5).
There is absolutely no allowance whatever for the present State and People of Israel to be carving out the Holy Land by the use of military force a nation (mainly of Jewish folk) at the expense of all the others who live in the region. It is time that we in the western world begin to realize that this is Scriptural fact. True, there are church leaders and theologians (both Christians and Jews) who state the very opposite teaching from what the Holy Scriptures actually relate. They are professionals at making the Scriptures say what they do not state. This is twisting the words of the Bible to make them say what a group of political partisans demand in order to get their own erroneous ways accepted. They abuse the meaning of Scripture by construing it to mean that their rebellious military actions can be justified. This is doing to the Scriptures what Peter said people were doing in his day to the teachings of the apostle Paul. They were making Paul say what Paul never said (2 Peter 3:15–16).
The truth is, It can be shown in the clearest of ways that the God of the Old and New Testaments HAS NOT given modern day Jews who are citizens of the State of Israel the right to use unlawful actions in order to occupy these lands of which they have been exiled for over 1800 years. It is this false belief that has prompted many Christians in the United States in particular to assume that these biblical prophecies provide divine justification for Israel to use her sophisticated and modern military machines to conquer the physical lands that the Children of Israel were promised in the time of Moses. This is not true.
If nothing more results out of the rubble of the greatest terrorist attack on any modern people (that which occurred on September 11, 2001 on our beloved United States), I believe there is a ray of sunshine in this realm of confusion. This ray of hope will help the United States and the world see some good from the outrageous criminal act committed against the people of the United States and against mankind as a whole. I believe the time has come to take advantage of this glimmer of hope. This is to ask Israel of their own accord and for the sake of my beloved country (the United States of America) as well as for the world community at large to cease their well-known military conquests of the Holy Land that are designed to carve out a homeland for the Jewish people in a non-biblical way.
I state with utter dogmatism that Israel has not the slightest justification for their present military actions (nor other unjust methods) to perform their belligerence in a bully fashion against the people of the Holy Land. Nowhere within the pages of the divine Word of the Living God (I mean the Holy Scriptures, both Old and New Testaments) is there such an allowance.
Back in 1994 I wrote an article which I titled: “How Israel Will Conquer the Middle East” (http://askelm.com/prophecy/p941201.htm). In that Prophetic Report I did indeed state that Israel would “conquer” the area and create an area for itself. I also explained, however, in the very first sentence of that Report, that when I stated that Israel would “conquer,” that the word must be interpreted in the manner that the Holy Scriptures meant. In most cases I admit that this is a word that often has accompanying its meaning the connotation of force and power. The word in national contexts usually gives people the impression that a total conquest is indicated which uses the armed forces of a nation to compel other states into submission. In other words, using that word “conquer” usually implies that the use of military force in doing the task is the preferred or proper method. This, however, is not the case. What I showed was something far different and it agreed with the teachings of the Holy Scriptures. Indeed, though the prophecies of the Bible show that Israel will have a supremacy of power and influence among most of the countries of the Middle East in the time of the end (just before the Second Advent of Christ back to this earth), Israel’s “conquering” will not be accomplished in the normal manner of one nation warring against another. The Holy Scriptures show that Israel will actually “conquer” the Middle East in a far more subtle and spiritual way than most people imagine today. And the outcome is inevitable because the prophecies of the Bible show that Israel will be in an unusual position of power and glory within the Middle East before the Second Advent of Christ (Zechariah 12 to 14). But how?
Let us first be aware of what will NOT apply in Israel’s “conquering” of the Middle East. Though Israel is the strongest military power in the area (as well as in the world), with a highly technical and sophisticated military machine that could wreak devastating power against any aggressor, nowhere does the Bible show that Israel will use (or SHOULD USE) their military muscle in order to take over effective control of the Middle East. Yes, in the New Testament we read in Revelation 19 of the Messiah using force. But that is the future. Military power today should only be for police actions, and NOT for conquest. Yes, Israel will come to governance in their area of the world. But let me explain the biblical answer why the use of military force as a primary weapon will NOT be the method to be used.
It should first be remembered from a biblical point of view that in remote times God brought Israel out of Egypt under the leadership of Moses and commanded Israel to go into the land of Canaan and conquer the Canaanites who then inhabited the land. God intended for Israel at that time to “conquer” the land of Canaan by the ordinary method of using their armed forces. However, as we are all aware, ten of the spies sent to view the land grew fainthearted when they witnessed the physical size of the inhabitants as well as their well-trained armed forces and high walled villages and towns. Israel temporarily forgot how God had caused them to triumph over the superior forces of Egypt by the use of God’s miracles, and now they were trembling in their shoes that Israel was inferior in military strength to the Canaanites. This reluctance to invade the land immediately and “conquer” the land by military force caused God to get angry with Israel. He sent them into the wilderness for forty years (for each day they spied out the land, they had to spend a year in the desert south of Canaan — Numbers 14:32–38).
This did not end the story, however. After forty years of wandering in the desert, the armed forces of Israel were finally led by Joshua into the land that was to become the “Holy Land.” They were able to secure most of the prime regions that God intended them to have. But again they disobeyed God. They gave up the attempt to drive out the Canaanites and their various tribes from the “Holy Land” so God prophesied that from then on these people would continue in the land and be a “prick in their sides” (Numbers 33:55). God even made Israel the promise that he would NOT drive out the inhabitants of the land before them, and that they would become a curse upon Israel (Judges 2:20–23; 3:3–7). And this very thing occurred.
Even much later, when David finally conquered all the land of Canaan from the eastern branch of the Nile in the south to the river Euphrates in the north and east, God still let many of the Canaanites and Philistines remain in some of the choicest parts of the “Holy Land.” Even the area called the “Stronghold of Zion” at Jerusalem remained in Canaanite hands until the time of David. It did not stop there. The peoples of the land continued to reside in Israel and Solomon even used some of them for menial service, which lasted until after the Babylonian Captivity.
As far as the Philistines were concerned (who later gave their name to what people call “Palestine”), they still inhabited the five cities on the southwest coast of Israel from Ashkelon down through what is now called the Gaza strip. Truly, God meant business with Israel. Since they steadfastly refused to invade, conquer, and expel the Canaanites and the Philistines in the manner that God had decreed by the normal methods of war, God then told Israel that these people would remain in the land. This condition still exists.
What did God command to Israel on the manner in which they would treat these foreign people who continued to live in the Land of Israel? There are numerous commands from God that Israelites should not vex or disturb any stranger (or foreigner) that lived among them in the land.
“And if a stranger sojourn with you in your land, you shall not vex [oppress] him. But the stranger that dwells with you shall be unto you as one born among you, and you shall love him as yourself; for you were strangers in the land of Egypt. I am the Lord your God.”
That makes it about as plain as anyone can make it. Those in Israel, who are not Jews, need to be treated by Jews as if the strangers were Jews, and that means even to love them as though they were Jews. This is a teaching the principles of democracy demand and it is a teaching that God commands. These foreigners were to be treated with decency and even with a sense of love for them. They certainly were not intended by God to be expelled from their homes and corralled into areas where Israel’s military forces could contain and humiliate them (or even to throw them out of the country to become exiles themselves from their lands and homes).
Though at the time of the Exodus God told Israel to “conquer” the Canaanites by using their armed forces, their failure to respond to God’s directions forced them into a situation in which they will never be able to rid themselves of the earlier inhabitants (or later immigrants into the region) by the use of their armed forces alone. Indeed, King David secured most of the promised land of Israel that God had given to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (though David did not expel all the Canaanites or Philistines). He then decided to do what God had not commanded. He ordered Joab, the commander of the armed forces, to muster a huge army from Judah in the south and Israel in the central and northern parts of the country. His intentions no doubt were to use this vast number of military personnel to take over Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Asia Minor. In a word, David thought it was now time for Israel to spread its wings and assume political and economic control of the whole of the Middle East.
As a matter of fact, David’s desire went further than that. Because of the influence of the Phoenicians in the western part of the Mediterranean and Egyptian dominance southward into the Sudan and central Africa, along with the control of the Aegean and Black Sea areas by the nations of Asia Minor, David would have effectively controlled the main part of the known world by conquering all those regions. Had he done so with the vast army that he had Joab assemble, David would have taken over the practical control of the known world at the time. In writing some of the Psalms as he did during this period, he expressed his belief that he, or at least his son, would gain control over all areas of the world. 3 David was ahead of God’s timing for this world rule. He felt that his own dynasty would usher in what later people began to call “the Kingdom of God” that would dominate the whole world. This was no doubt the design of David when he ordered Joab to muster the armed forces and place them on a war footing.
But God had other ideas. David’s prophetic chronology was not in tune with God’s divine plan. So, David’s ambitious designs for conquest were brought to a complete halt when God stepped in to frustrate the desires of David (2 Samuel 24:1–25). Military conquest was NOT the method God wanted David to use. He was not intended to employ his armed forces like Alexander the Great did some 700 years later. God had other ways to bring to pass His Kingdom of God on earth. This is where Solomon comes in. God allowed Israel under Solomon to gain a decided control over all the earth, but by another means altogether. It is this same type of maneuver that God will allow Israel to adopt and to practice to perfection in order for them to “conquer” the Middle East today.
Soon we will find that the people of Israel will once again adopt the principles of Solomon in coming to dominate the Middle East. His methods will work every time if they are done in benevolence and good will. What did Solomon do in a typical fashion to have the Middle East and finally the whole world prostrating at his feet? Note what the Bible says in the clearest of language. It is by using these methods that Israel will be very effective at this end of the age. Israel will soon adopt the principles of conquest used by Solomon once they realize that the Holy Scriptures have the answers to all their social, political, and economic problems as well as the glorification of their national and international interests. Let us see what Solomon did that brought him a control over the Middle East.
There are several points that Solomon adopted, but let us attend to the more obvious. Look at 1 Kings 10:24. “And all the earth sought [margin: sought the face] of Solomon, TO HEAR HIS WISDOM, which God had put in his heart.” The essential faculty that Solomon possessed above all other men at the time was “wisdom,” and the rest of the great men of the world knew it.
“And God gave Solomon wisdom and understanding exceeding much, and largeness of heart, even as the sand that is on the sea shore. And Solomon’s wisdom exceeded the wisdom of all the children of the east country and all the wisdom of Egypt, for he was wiser than all men and his fame was in all nations round about.”
1 Kings 4:29–31
The Queen of Sheba came to Jerusalem to see Solomon and said: “Behold, the half was not told me: your wisdom and prosperity exceeds the fame, which I heard” (1 Kings 10:7). So, to gain the admiration of all on earth, Israel today must begin to show exceeding wisdom in its foreign affairs.
This fact of Solomon’s wisdom led to other similar accomplishments.
Now, much has changed since the time of Solomon and there are no longer harems to secure peace treaties, but the same principles on the other matters still apply. Israel will have to wake up and begin to practice the ways of Solomon in aiding NOT ONLY ISRAELITES, but also the Gentiles still in the lands of Israel and in their neighboring countries. They need to start treating their neighbors and inhabitants (whether Jewish or Gentile) with the same kind of educational and cultural and economic benefits that Solomon began to provide to all within his territory.
Though Solomon did not actually control the Middle East and the world by having his armed forces everywhere on earth, he still influenced and conquered them by his example. He showed the world his wisdom, his peace, his patience, his knowledge, his understanding, his powers of negotiating, his benevolence, and his care for all people under his supervision.
When Israel as a nation begins to do these things in the next few years, God will bless them abundantly for their philanthropy and good deeds. Indeed, the kingdom of Jordan, Lebanon and even Syria (among others) will be inviting Jewish professionals to come into their territories and help them to build up their economies and societies.
The Bible also shows that many Jews will finally go into areas of Jordan and Lebanon and settle there (Zechariah 10:10). Even in Saudi Arabia Jews will be welcome if they arrive among them bearing with them the wisdom, knowledge, understanding and good will of Solomon. Through their example, in the seven years before the return of Christ Jesus to this earth, Israel and its people will have an influence over all areas of the world. This is when a type of (false) messianic ruler will emerge whom the apostles referred to (2 Thessalonians 2:1–12). He will come from the Middle East, and govern from Jerusalem in particular. On the heels of this will come the Second Advent and the Kingdom of God, of which the kingdom of Solomon was a type. Now note this important point. Solomon managed to control the Middle East and to influence the world, but NOT by the use of his army.
Does this seem like a fantasy? Is this a pipe dream without any practical application in this part of the world where hatred now permeates the very air? Listen! It is God who will intervene in that area. God will soon send a spirit of grace and supplication to Israel (Zechariah 12:9–14). They will make an “about face” in dealing with their neighbors and those within their territories. They will start showing the attributes of Solomon when they accept the One who is greater than Solomon, and that person is their real Messiah (Matthew 12:42). Israel will soon begin to mourn for the One who was pierced when He secured the salvation of the world. And though it was Israel by their prophets who introduced the teaching of the Messiah to the world, they are the very ones who remain without him. They have a messianic religion, without a Messiah! This will change. They will be wise enough NOT to accept the longhaired “Messiah” now displayed in our churches, who was invented by Constantine and his successors and who mimics the pagan gods. Israel will opt for the real Messiah with credentials from the Holy Scriptures. When they do,
“… ten men shall take hold out of all languages of the nations the skirt of him that is a Jew, saying, we will go with you.”
So, when Israel begins to show that grace, good will and love to other people as did Solomon, and also accept the One greater than Solomon, they will “conquer” not only the Middle East, but they will also have the admiration of all on earth.
The time for Israel to change its ways and to get into conformity to their role as shown by the Holy Scriptures is NOW. Indeed, the day I write this Prophetic Report is on the Day of Trumpets (Rosh Ha-Shanah, September 18, 2001). But in ten days time (beginning Wednesday night on September 26, 2001) the holiest day of the Jewish year starts and will last until sundown the next evening, September 27th. That is a day when the whole nation of Israel fasts (refrains from food or drink) in order to ask God for the forgiveness of their sins. There is some specific teaching in the Book of Isaiah about the kind of fast day that God really desires for the people of Israel. Even we Gentiles (who are likewise sinners in the eyes of God and can also ask for forgiveness) along with Israel can reflect on the sublime teachings that Isaiah the Prophet gave to the early Israelites. The spiritual teaching of Isaiah is as pertinent today as it was for those almost 800 years before Christ. Here is what Isaiah taught ancient Israel. I hope that all of the people of Israel will adopt these statements of Isaiah with a united purpose and a diligence to perform them (and that we Gentiles will join them in doing the same things). Note Isaiah 58:1–12.
“Cry aloud [Isaiah], spare not, lift up your voice like a trumpet, and show my people [Israel] their transgression, and the house of Jacob their sins. 2 Yet they seek me daily, and delight to know my ways, as a nation that did righteousness, and forsook not the ordinance of their God: they ask of me the ordinances of justice; they take delight in approaching to God. 3 Wherefore have we fasted [on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement], say they, and you see not? wherefore have we afflicted our soul, and you take no knowledge?
Behold, in the day of your fast [says the God of Israel] you find pleasure, and exact all your labors. 4 Behold, you fast for strife and debate, and to smite with the fist of wickedness: you shall not fast as you do this day, to make your voice to be heard on high. 5 Is it such a fast that I have chosen [a mere physical “day”]? a day for a man [merely] to afflict his soul? is it [merely] to bow down his head as a bulrush, and to spread sackcloth and ashes under him? will you call this a [proper] fast, and an acceptable day to YHWH? [NO, it is NOT!]
6 Is not this the fast [the proper kind of “fast”] that I have chosen?:
to loose the bands of wickedness,
to undo the heavy burdens,
and to let the oppressed go free,
and that you break every yoke?
7 Is it not to deal your bread to the hungry,
and that you bring the poor that are cast out [in Exile] to your house?
when you see the naked, that you cover him;
and that you hide not yourself from your own flesh?
8 Then shall your light break forth as the morning, and your health shall spring forth speedily: and your righteousness shall go before you; the glory of YHWH shall be your reward. 9 Then shall you call, and YHWH shall answer; you shall cry, and he shall say, Here I am. If you take away from the midst of you the yoke, the putting forth of the finger [of blame], and speaking vanity; 10 And if you draw out your soul to the hungry, and satisfy the afflicted soul; then shall your light rise in obscurity, and your darkness be as the noonday:
11 And YHWH shall guide you continually, and satisfy your soul in drought, and make fat your bones: and you shall be like a watered garden, and like a spring of water, whose waters fail not. 12 And they that shall be of you shall build the old waste places: you shall raise up the foundations of many generations; and you shall be called, The repairer of the breach, The restorer of paths to dwell in.”
That section of Isaiah is a very appropriate one for Israelites throughout the world at this time. It is most instructive and needful to be heard on this Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement, starting with sundown on September 26, 2001). Israel seriously needs to consider this command and promise from their God (from our God the Father of us all). Indeed, it is such a beautiful and necessary command that even we Gentiles around the globe can learn and benefit from its teaching.
What are described above are simple (yet profound) democratic principles that people of all nations and creeds can know to be proper. There is no teaching in New Testament, the Koran, or the writings of all the Gentile nations on earth that would dispute the validity of this section of the Holy Scriptures. If obeyed, terrorism will cease on earth, and Israel will become the nation that all nations will call “the People of God.”
Ernest L. Martin, 2001
Edited by David Sielaff, November 2009
1 National news media and the U.S. government have since determined that of the 19 hijackers, 18 were from Saudi Arabia and one was from the United Arab Emirates. None were Palestinians, but all were Muslims. DWS
3 Psalms 2 and 72 finally became prophetic in a Messianic sense. ELM
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