Restoring the Original Bible
Chapter 22 

The Seven General Epistles

In the earliest and best manuscripts the seven epistles of James, 1 & 2 Peter, 1, 2 & 3 John and Jude are placed before the fourteen epistles of the apostle Paul. And this is where they belong! Prof. Scrivener, after examining over 4000 manuscripts of the New Testament, said:

“Whether copies contain the whole or a part of the sacred volume, the general order of the books is the following: Gospels, Acts, Catholic Epistles, Pauline Epistles, Apocalypse.”

The term “Catholic” in the above quote is not a reference to a church denomination. It meant in earlier times “universal,” “general,” or “non-localized.” It signified a group of letters which went to no specific congregation, but they were intended to go to the generality of people, and in the case of these seven epistles, it meant that they were intended primarily for the “Jewish” people. Thus, the term that most people today use to refer to this division of the New Testament is “General Epistles.” This is the designation that we will use to avoid a wrong conclusion that they were intended to go to the Roman or Greek Catholic Churches. Just the opposite was the case because for the most part their readers were Jews, not Gentiles as were the Romans and Greeks.

In our present discussion, we are only interested in the position of these seven epistles within the New Testament canon. There is no doubt that the evidence supplied by the manuscripts places them right after the Christian Pentateuch (Gospels and Acts) and before those of Paul. Salmon shows the judgment of every one of the textual critics of the last century:

“This is the position [the General Epistles before Paul’s] assigned them in the critical editions of Lachmann, Tischendorf, Tregelles, Westcott and Hort.”

More scholarly evidence to support the propriety of these conclusions was given in the first chapter of this book. As Professor Gregory pointed out, scholars and laity should not view this matter with indifference. He felt it was important that the manuscript order should be retained in modern versions and translations. 3 As one of the giants in the field of New Testament textual criticism, I feel his admonition should be heeded and that our present versions should be corrected to accord with the manuscripts. But there is more evidence besides what the manuscripts themselves show. This information comes from the Bible itself. There are seven biblical reasons which indicate why the General Epistles must precede those of Paul in the order of the New Testament books. Let us look at them.

The Biblical Evidence

One of the cardinal rules of logic is that discussions on any subject should proceed from the general to the particular. And these seven epistles are called “General” for several reasons.

(1) EACH BOOK WAS WRITTEN TO A GENERAL AREA WHERE JEWS WERE LIVING IN THE DIASPORA and not to a specific congregation like those of the apostle Paul. James, for example, directed his epistle to the “twelve tribes scattered abroad” — in all areas where Israelites were living outside Palestine. Peter, on the other hand, became a little more specialized regarding the geographical areas in which his readers lived, but still, his two epistles were directed in a general way to those “scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia” (1 Peter 1:1; 2 Peter 3:1). John and Jude were even more “general” regarding the geographical locations of their readers. They gave no territorial identifications at all. The decided impression that one gets when reading these seven epistles is that they were intended to be read by a large body of people, and notably the people being written to were mainly of Jewish extraction living outside Palestine.

Paul’s letters, on the other hand (with the exception of one — the Book of Hebrews) were written to specific congregations or individuals. Thus, the seven “General Epistles” which went mainly to the Jewish people in the Diaspora were placed before Paul’s letters to the Gentiles because the recipients were scattered in general areas outside of Palestine. As I mentioned, in matters of logic it is normal that the “general” should precede the “particular.”

(2) THESE SEVEN EPISTLES CONTAIN ONLY GENERAL TEACHINGS. Notice that there are no discourses on what baptism means, how to observe the Lord’s Supper, how to conduct oneself in the liturgies in the congregation, etc. The only instructions that we find in these seven epistles are of a general nature and all of them present basic teachings. James even spoke of his readers as going to war with one another: “Whence come wars among you” (James 4:1). He also wrote of the rich among them as severely oppressing the poor (5:1). These statements have led some to wonder if he was speaking to converted Christian people. (It seems odd to think that Christians in that early period going to war with one another in a national way.)

The theme of the epistle of James seems to be giving an overview (or an introduction) to the basic concepts of Christianity. It is significant that there are only two short references to Christ (1:1 and 2:1) and if those two references were removed from the text, the whole epistle could easily have been called a simple Jewish exposition on Old Testament values and theology. 4

This Old Testament theme presents no problem if one understands that the work was intended simply to be a Christian introduction of a general nature to people representing the twelve tribes of Israel located in the Diaspora. It would have been ridiculous to tell “the twelve tribes” in an introductory letter how they were to act in the Christian community, and in what order the Christian ministers should teach, etc. In fact, the people to whom James wrote were not attending any Christian congregation — they were still members of various synagogues (James 2:2, Greek).

James was speaking to Jews who were just beginning to learn what the first principles of Christianity really were. This is why his book is positioned directly after the Book of Acts. It was intended to provide some preliminary teachings of Christianity without involving the readers in major doctrinal issues. The other epistles following James were meant to set forth a little more advanced teaching of what the Gospel of Christ entailed, but still, their teachings remain quite general and non-specific.

The seven epistles (starting with James) are positioned so as to present in a progressive manner the doctrines of Christianity, but in a general and non-doctrinal manner. This is shown when one compares the epistles of Peter, John and Jude with that of James. We find the same progressive teaching in Peter’s epistles, though the geographical destination is more defined than James and his doctrinal matters are a little stronger. Yet Peter is still giving general teaching. “As newborn babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that you may grow thereby” (1 Peter 2:2).

Peter was followed by the three letters of John, and then that of Jude. The letters of John focus on the general need for love to be expressed among brethren and that people should pay attention to the first principles of Christian teaching — adhering to the primitive and basic doctrines which were given “from the beginning” (1 John 2:7, 13; 3:8, 11; 2 John 5).

Though Jude homes in on a specific problem that was facing the Christian community when he wrote, his emphasis is still “that you should earnestly contend for the faith once delivered to the saints” (Jude 3). Jude then described a condition happening within the Christian community that some people have thought incompatible with the strict moral and doctrinal disciplines in the congregations which Paul supervised. True enough. But the seven General Epistles were not designed to give theological or ecclesiastical information to the Gentile section of the Christian community.

These seven epistles were general letters dealing with large groups of people (mostly Jewish) who were still adhering, in many cases, to the national concepts of Judaism. This is why these epistles were placed before those of Paul. They present teachings for an “infant” stage in the understanding of Christian doctrines and group discipline.

(3) THESE SEVEN EPISTLES WERE ALSO WRITTEN BY MEN WHO WERE COMMISSIONED TO PREACH THE GOSPEL TO THE JEWISH PEOPLE, and the messages (as we have seen) show that they were primarily intended for Jews. The apostle Paul recognized this special commission of these men, and how it differed from his.

“And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we [Paul and Barnabas] should go unto the Gentiles, and they [James, Peter and John] unto the circumcised.”

The role of these three “pillar” apostles was very prestigious in the Christian community, and they were given charge over the Jewish people who were Christians. This gave them a position of priority. To be “pillars” meant that these men were recognized as the “founding fathers” of the Christian body of believers, and they were accorded a special esteem because of this. They were also Jews and this gave them a priority. Even Paul admitted it.

“I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to everyone that believes; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.”

As I have been showing throughout this book, it was essential that the Gospel be given to the Jewish people first. Christ was adamant that this be done and He set the example by refusing to teach to outright Gentiles (Matthew 15:21–28). Even in the first period after Christ’s resurrection, the apostles spoke only to Jews about Christ (Acts 11:19). When it finally became permissible to grant Gentiles an opportunity to hear the Gospel, Paul still gave the Jewish people the priority of hearing. “It was necessary that the Word of God should first have been spoken to you [to you Jews] (Acts 13:46). Paul always went to the Jews first wherever he wished to teach (Acts 11:19; 13:14; 14:1; 17:1,10; 18:4; 19:8; 28:17).

This principle alone would make it necessary to place these seven “Jewish” epistles written by the prime “Jewish” apostles to a front rank position ahead of the fourteen epistles of Paul which were intended to go to the Gentiles.

(4) THESE SEVEN EPISTLES ALSO HAVE FIRST POSITION BECAUSE THEIR AUTHORS HAD SENIORITY OVER PAUL. This is made clear by Paul himself. He referred to these “pillar” authorities at Jerusalem as being “apostles before me” (Galatians 1:17). Philastrius, in the 4th century, observed that the seven General Epistles must have priority over Paul for this one reason alone. 5 And why not? Throughout the whole of the Bible the superiority of eldership is recognized. Even Christ pointed out the special position of seniority that the original Jewish apostles had: “And you shall also bear witness, because you have been with me from the beginning (John 15:27). We should remember that when Matthias was elected to be numbered among the apostles in the place of Judas, it was acknowledged that a prime requirement for apostleship necessitated that:

“these men which have companied with us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, beginning with the baptism of John”

This recognition of eldership was accorded those apostles who preceded Paul, who wrote:

“Salute Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen, and my fellowprisoners, who are of note among the apostles, who were also in Christ before me.

These examples are enough to show that a preeminence was given to the “pillar” apostles even by Paul. It can be said without doubt that had Paul been given the opportunity to position the various books within a New Testament canon, Paul would have given a superior position to the “Jewish” apostles who wrote to the “Jewish” people because they were the founding fathers (the elders) of the Christian community. And significantly, this is exactly the superior position which the manuscripts maintain.

(5) Not only did the Jerusalem apostles have seniority over Paul, THEY ALSO HAD GREATER ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY. Paul said that James, Peter and John (the main writers of the General Epistles) were the pillars of the church (Galatians 2:9). It was to them that Paul had to go in order to settle the question of circumcision among the Gentiles. He went “to them of reputation [that is, to them of recognized authority], lest by any means I should run, or had run, in vain” (Galatians 2:2).

This scripture tells us much. In no uncertain terms Paul said that had he not cleared his teaching with the pillar apostles in Jerusalem concerning the irrelevance for Gentiles to be circumcised, all his teaching would have been in vain. But when the three pillar apostles heard the whole story of what God was doing through Paul among the Gentiles, they “gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision” (Galatians 2:9). This rank of authority was demonstrated by James at the Jerusalem conference. It was James who gave the final decision on what the Gentiles could and could not do (Acts 15:19).

In matters of rank, Paul was well aware that he was the “least” of the apostles. Speaking of his later call to the apostleship, he said:

“And last of all, he [Christ] was seen of me also, as one born out of due time. For I am the least of the apostles, that am not meet to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God.”

Throughout the Bible the principle of those in the greatest authority having supremacy over lesser ones is maintained. In the first portion of the Book of Acts, we find the name of Barnabas placed before that of Paul, but later (when Paul was given more administrative authority) the placement is reversed. Barnabas was a Christian prior to Paul and he was a Levite (Acts 4:36). This at first gave him a rank above Paul in the eyes of the Jews. This was finally changed (Acts 15:2) and only temporarily reversed when they were once again within a Jewish environment at Jerusalem (Acts 15:12).

All of this shows why, in the New Testament canon, the General Epistles of the “pillar” apostles are placed first to accord with the Jewish recognition of eldership and their superiority in matters of authority. Modern scholars have recognized this. Prof. Ernest F. Scott of Columbia University says:

“In our English New Testament, the General Epistles are placed near the end of the volume, just before the Book of Revelation. The Greek manuscripts put them as a rule, immediately after the Gospels and Acts, and before the writings of Paul. This was no doubt in recognition of the fact that they bore the names of the Apostles who were directly associated with Jesus, and whose authority, therefore, might be considered superior to that of Paul. In keeping with this principle, the first place of all was accorded to the Epistle of James. Its author was assumed to be no other than James, the Lord’s own brother.”

(6) The General Epistles must also precede Paul’s because THEY GIVE THE PROPER APPROACH TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF PAUL’S DOCTRINAL LETTERS which have a mature approach to Christian teaching. It was Peter who told his readers that Paul’s teachings (or the subjects he dealt with) were “hard to be understood” and that one should be careful in interpreting them (2 Peter 3:16). Now, where would a person expect to find such a warning? In our present order of biblical books, Peter’s caution has been placed after one already studied Paul’s fourteen epistles. What an odd place for such an admonition. Would it not be better to find Peter’s statement in a section of scripture which was intended, in the first place, to be an introduction to the doctrinal dissertations of Paul? That is where it is found if one leaves the books in the order sanctioned by the early manuscripts.

There are even more reasons for placing the “Jewish” apostles before Paul. Doctrinal matters can be given a better understanding to all readers of the New Testament if the books are left in the proper order. For example, Paul said that Abraham was justified by faith (Romans 4:2) while James said Abraham’s justification was by works (James 2:21). There is really no contradiction. If one will first read the practical application of faith as rendered by James, before one reaches the more philosophical aspect as encountered in Paul, the two concepts can be harmonized very well. For James, a faith expressed without works is no faith at all, even though a faith based solidly on works, that Paul spoke of, was equally not proper.

Similarly, in trying to comprehend the full teaching of other doctrinal matters, if people would tackle Paul’s epistles after having absorbed the introductory and basic instruction within the General Epistles, a much easier task would await them in comprehending the fullness of the Gospel. It seems odd that people would want to enter “College” (Paul’s Epistles) without mastering “High School” first (the General Epistles).

(7) THE SEVENTH REASON why Paul’s epistles belong after the seven General Epistles CONCERNS THE CANONIZATION of THE NEW TESTAMENT ITSELF. Since there had been a great deal of doubt among some 1st century people, especially Jewish Christians, regarding the validity of Paul’s teaching and the inspiration of the letters he wrote, Peter thought it necessary to inform his readers that Paul’s letters were indeed as inspired as the Old Testament (2 Peter 3:15–16). Since Peter knew it was the responsibility of himself and John (with John having the final authority) to perform the actual canonization of the New Testament according to the command of Christ (2 Peter 1:12–20), it was seen to be essential that they sanction the body of Paul’s letters which had been selected to be included in that canon. Obviously, it would have been the normal thing to inform people that Paul’s epistles were inspired before people would begin to study them!

Note that Peter (in his Second Epistle concerning canonization) referred to the inspiration of Paul’s epistles at the last moment of his writing. This again indicates that the authority of Peter and of John superseded that of Paul. The apostle Paul was not only mentioned last by Peter, but his fourteen epistles were also placed in last position. And, indeed, they had to be. The teaching in them was of a highly sophisticated nature and represented the meat of the word of God. If the Christian Pentateuch (the Gospels and Acts) could be reckoned the basic “Elementary School” for Christian development, then the seven General Epistles would be the “High School,” and the fourteen epistles of Paul would be the “College.” And, to conclude the illustration, it would mean that the Book of Revelation, which occurs last of all in the manuscripts, would be the “Post-Graduate Studies.”

The Order of the General Epistles

The principle of rank and subject matter is the reason that the epistle of James must precede that of Peter, and Peter those of John and that of Jude. Professor Scott, quoted above, shows this. “In keeping with this principle [of superior rank], the first place of all was accorded to the epistle of James.” This is true enough. Even Paul recognized the rank of the pillar apostles in this fashion. “And when James, Cephas [Peter], and John, who seemed to be pillars ...” (Galatians 2:9). The order of these “pillar” apostles is exactly in conformity to the principle of rank. It is no wonder that the General Epistles follow this exact order in the New Testament canon. This is a clear sign that the authority concept was being followed precisely.

Concluding Evidence

There is a final point that should be mentioned which shows a major difference between the seven General Epistles and the fourteen of Paul, and it is significant enough to warrant the epistles of the “‘Jewish” apostles preceding those of Paul. Notice once again that the authors of the seven General Epistles. James and Jude were legal brothers of Jesus. This made James and Jude to be of royal Davidic stock. Since the Book of Acts ends with teaching the Jews in Rome about the Kingdom of God, the very next section of the New Testament is dominated by James with Jude (two royal scions of David) who carry on the theme of entering the Kingdom of God. Both Peter and John take inferior roles in this regard. Peter was actually from ordinary Jewish stock (perhaps from Simeon) while John was of priestly ancestry. Though Peter was clearly the top apostle in rank, James (the brother of Jesus) was of Davidic blood and he became head of the Jerusalem congregation. These men (James and Jude) were the top representatives of the Davidic dynasty, Peter was the “top apostle,” and John was a part of the Aaronic priesthood.

Tribe of Benjamin

With the apostle Paul, it was different. Though he was a Jew by religion and upbringing, Paul was a descendant of the Tribe of Benjamin. This may appear at first to be an insignificant distinction but to 1st century Jews, among whom genealogical matters were of utmost importance (1 Timothy 1:4; Titus 3:9), it had a bearing on authority and prestige. The fact is, Benjamin was the last born of Jacob’s twelve sons. There was no tribe in Israel on a lower rung of authority by reason of birth. Even in the list of the twelve tribes recorded in the Book of Revelation, Judah is placed first (Revelation 7:5) and Benjamin last (verse 8).

As a matter of fact, because of the wickedness of the tribe in the period of the judges, the other eleven tribes were on the verge of killing every descendant of Benjamin (Judges 20 and 21). This was avoided at the last moment when the remaining 600 men of Benjamin were able to marry women of their brother tribe Manasseh. Some years later the first king of a united Israel was Saul, a Benjaminite. The Bible shows, however, that this ascendancy of the least born tribe was not to last. Judah finally took its prophesied lead (Genesis 49:8–12) and David was installed as the first legitimate king of Israel.

Benjamin, moreover, was not totally rejected in this rise to power of Judah. When the Temple was built by Solomon, it was placed inside the Tribe of Benjamin right on its southern border with Judah, on lower Mount Moriah in the city of Jerusalem. It was predicted that God would “dwell” between the shoulders of Benjamin (Deuteronomy 33:12). It was thought that by placing the Temple within the precincts of the least born tribe, the other eleven tribes would not be squabbling over who was the most powerful with God. This stratagem worked, up to a point. But when the northern ten tribes of Israel revolted from the rule of the Davidic dynasty after the death of Solomon, Benjamin remained firmly devoted to Judah. After all, Jerusalem and God’s true Temple were in their territory. From then on, the fortunes of Benjamin were connected with those of Judah.

There was even a special relationship established, in a religious sense, between Benjamin and Judah, and the Bible recognized it. Unlike their early wickedness, the tribe seems to have become (as a whole) the “righteous” anchor that Judah needed to prevent it from being swallowed up by the Assyrians when northern Israel was taken captive. Though the Tribe of Judah is quite often rebuked for their ways, the Tribe of Benjamin after the time of Solomon is always spoken of by the Chronicler and the prophets in mild and often laudatory terms. Indeed, the prophet Jeremiah (who was a priest from the area of Benjamin) offered the Benjaminites safety from the Babylonian holocaust that was coming upon Jerusalem in his day (Jeremiah 6:1), and so certain was Jeremiah that Benjamin would find shelter once again in their own land that he bought some property in Benjamin and sealed the deed in a jar to be evidence for possession after the Babylonian Captivity (Jeremiah 32:8–44).

The descendants of Benjamin became especially important to Judah after the Babylonian Captivity. When Haman the Agagite maneuvered to have the whole of the Jewish race murdered by the edicts of the Persian emperor, Queen Esther, the emperor’s wife, managed to prevent this from happening. Esther (a Benjaminitess, Esther 2:5–6) and her uncle Mordecai (the prime minister of Persia) were instrumental in saving the whole of the Jewish people from destruction. It was “Benjamin” interceding with the Gentile ruler to save “Judah.”

This contact of Benjamin between Judah and the Gentiles was not to end with Esther and Mordecai. One of the most important Benjaminites of all time was the apostle Paul (Acts 13:21; Romans 11:1; Philippians 3:5). Here was a member of the least born tribe of Israel playing a profound role as a mediator, once again, between Judah and the Gentile world. It was the Gentiles under Paul’s supervision that sent the Jews of Palestine much material help in the time of famine (Acts 11:28–30; Romans 15:26). But more than that, the apostle Paul was responsible for teaching the Gospel of reconciliation between the Jews and all peoples of the Gentile world (Ephesians 2:11–22). Here was “Benjamin” coming to rescue Judah once again to make people in the world love and honor them, but it was also “Judah” coming to the rescue (through Christ) for the salvation of the whole world (2 Corinthians 5:18–19). And Paul was a mediator between the two groups.

It is ironic that the Bible records the least born of Israel giving the most spiritual teaching even though Judah had more birthright authority. Though Judah possessed the kingship of David, the Aaronic priesthood, and the seat of Moses, and because of this they should be accorded first rank, yet it was the least ranked tribe (Benjamin) that provided the most spiritual truth to Judah and to the world. It seems that this is the way the Bible says God works.

It is interesting that Abraham (the father of the faithful) was the youngest son of Terah (compare Genesis 11:26 and 12:1 with Acts 7:4). Jacob was the youngest son of Isaac yet he got the blessing and the birthright. Ephraim was the youngest son of Joseph yet he obtained birthright status. Moses was younger than Aaron yet he assumed supreme power over Aaron (God’s High Priest) and over all Israel. David was the youngest of Jesse’s children yet he became heir to the grandest royal dynasty ever afforded mankind. Yet it does not stop there.

The first Gentile to receive the Gospel of Christ was an Ethiopian black man (far removed from the race of Israel) and a eunuch to boot — both conditions would render the man unable to enter the Temple of God. And the first uncircumcised Gentile to receive the Gospel was Cornelius, a Roman centurion of the hated occupation forces within Palestine. From this, it seems as though the least born or those most unfavored to receive customary honors and prestige are the very ones who are picked to bring the most spiritual blessings to the world.

Christ taught that “many that are first shall be last; and the last shall be first(Matthew 19:30). And though this was the case in spiritual matters, as far as social status and administration was concerned, the New Testament follows a consistent rule to give the messages of the Gospel to the Jews first. This is always shown in the texts of the New Testament, and it is also confirmed in the manuscript order of the New Testament books.

Paul always placed the Jews and the Jewish apostles first in his consideration. Paul knew that his social rank was inferior to the rest of the apostles. Indeed, though Paul was in an inferior position from all the social and religious ranks within Judah which had to do with birth, he was the one whom God graced with fourteen epistles in the New Testament. This makes Paul the most prolific writer of books in the Bible, and yet he was least born in rank.

Of course, this does not mean that we should exalt Paul’s epistles to first position ahead of the kinsmen of Christ (who were of Judah and of royal Davidic ancestry and the ones taught by Christ himself), but it does mean the Bible can honor any person to a high position of esteem no matter if he or she is on the lowest pedestal of social, religious or political rank. As for Paul, his own estimation of his position of rank is well recorded:

“And last of all he was seen of me also, as one born out of due time [without any birthright status]. For I am the least of the apostles, that am not fit to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God. But by the grace of God I am what I am: and his grace which was bestowed on me was not in vain; but I labored more abundantly than they all: yet not I, but the grace of God which was with me.”

Though Paul was the least of all New Testament leaders in social rank, his abundant labor gained for him the right to have his name indelibly stamped on more books of the Bible than anyone else.

In conclusion, it should be recognized that the seven General Epistles truly belong in a first rank position right after the New Testament Pentateuch (and ahead of Paul), but God has a way of making the “last” to be “first” — first in spiritual values. It was Paul’s devotion and his abundance of work for the cause of the Gospel that allowed him to have first honor in the amount of books in the Bible (2 Corinthians 11:18–28). In spite of this fact, the world has no authority to reposition Paul’s epistles in advance of the General Epistles.

It is high time that the publishers of Bibles place these seven General Epistles back into their first rank position. By doing so, every social statement in the New Testament about the Jews being first and the “pillar” apostles having a position of top eldership rank will then be in accord with the positioning of these epistles within the manuscripts themselves.


1 Frederick Scrivener, A Plain Introduction to Criticism of the New Testament for the Use of Bible Students, 4th ed., ed by Edward Miller, vol. I (New York: G. Bell, 1894), p.72.

2 "Catholic Epistles," James Hastings, ed., Dictionary of the Bible, vol. I (New York: C. Scribner's Sons: c1898-1904), p.360.

3 Caspar René Gregory, Canon and Text of the New Testament (New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1912), pp. 467-469.

4 Guthrie, New Testament Introduction, p. 756.

5 James Moffatt, Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, c1918), p.13.

6 Ernest F. Scott, The Literature of the New Testament (New York: Columbia University Press, [1936]), pp. 209-210.

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